In the quantitative toolkit, you can find the Global Kids Online survey (Version 2, 2020). For Version 1 (used from 2016 to 2019) see ‘Additional resources’ below.

The quantitative toolkit includes research instruments that will help you to design, carry out the survey, and analyse the data. It also contains expert guidance on key issues to consider during the research process.


Begin with the Survey guide which outlines the parameters of the modular survey and offers practical guidance on conducting the research.

Survey guide

Survey questionnaire

Below you can download the full survey (all questions), the shorter Core version (mandatory questions only) or the survey by module. The full survey and each module have integrated data dictionary and derived variables, where relevant.

Module Description
Full survey All questions, all modules
Core questions Mandatory questions from all modules
A. Child identity Measures of children’s capacities and vulnerabilities, including children’s demographics, socio-economic background, psychological characteristics, health and able-bodieness.
B. Access Age of first internet use, the intensity of internet use, places of use, devices used, and barriers to access.
C. Well-being (benefits) The overall benefit from internet use (having a good time online, whether offers good things for children to do).
D. Activities (opportunities) Learning, civic participation, creativity, social relationships, entertainment, personal and commercial use, risky opportunities and e-health.
E. Communication Use of websites or apps, approach to online communication, behaviour and safety on social networking sites.
F. Skills Operational skills, informational/browsing skills, social skills, creative skills and skills related to mobile devices, and digital confidence.
G. Well-being (harms) Internet content that is upsetting or bothersome, experiencing hurtful situations online and response to these, excessive internet use.
H. Activities (risks) Meeting new people online, exposure to sexual content (voluntary and involuntary), potentially negative user-generated content and other negative experiences (personal information being used, losing money, etc.).
I. Communication (sexual) Witnessing, receiving and sending sexual messages online, motivation for sending sexual images, and feelings and coping behaviour about those experiences.
J. Sexual exploitation and abuse Unwanted exposure online and harm to self or others.
K. Hurtful and bullying behaviour Witnessing, being treated or treating others in a hurtful way online, and feelings and coping behaviour about those experiences.
L. Social support


Seeking help following negative online experiences. Support from and belonging to family, peers, school and community.
M. Education Using technology for learning at school and at home.
N. Internet mediation Internet-related parental mediation, peer mediation, teacher mediation, privacy risks from others’ actions.
O. Well-being Life satisfaction, depression, suicidal ideation, self-harm, offline experience of negative events.
P. Privacy Perceived vulnerability to and harm from online privacy risks, privacy-protection strategies.
Q. Parent module Identity, internet use, digital skills, mediation and monitoring, online information on child safety and support, parental concerns, child wellbeing and household demographics.
R. Teacher module Internet use, use of technology for teaching, digital skills, mediation and monitoring of students, online information on child safety and support.

Key measures

The Global Kids Online key measures are selected from the full Global Kids Online survey questionnaire. They capture the fundamental issues related to children’s internet use and are intended for inclusion in survey research on children’s circumstances, experiences or life chances. The key measures encompass internet access, use, online opportunities, risk of harm and social support. They have been developed by the GKO network through the pilot testing and full implementation in multiple countries, with periodic review and revision to improve the measures.

Key measures – download

Data analysis

Drawing on both GKO findings, and a recent review of the existing evidence, we set the agenda for future research and analysis. It reflects the need to understand the influences, and pathways to influence, in children’s well-being in a digital world. The research agenda is organised around key areas related to children’s internet use, all of them important in the GKO model. In each of these areas, we seek to identify key opportunities for further research and analysis, discuss existing methodological challenges, and pinpoint the main measures used.

Setting the agenda for future research and analysis: children’s vulnerabilities and protective factors

Methodological guidance

The method guides examine key issues related to researching children’s online risks and opportunities, such as: ethical considerations, survey sampling and administration, designing a standardised survey, research with children of different ages, researching online opportunities for children, online child sexual exploitation, comparative analysis, diversities and inequalities. Written by experts in the field, they give practical advice to researchers, with case studies and best practice examples. Also included are useful links and checklists.

Producing your country report with findings: offers guidance on how to write up your country findings for pubication on the GKO website.

Review of the recent evidence

We carried out a review evaluating the recent evidence on children’s engagement with the online environment. Focusing on how internet use can be beneficial as well as problematic in children’s lives, the review aims to contribute to a better understanding of children’s pathways to harm and resilience in a digital world.

Full report and summary

Additional resources

Permission to use the Global Kids Online research toolkit

Anyone may use the resources under the Attributive Non-Commercial Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC) crediting Global Kids Online as the source. Keep in touch with your results by emailing and

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